Struggle for Free Hindustan – Is it worth buying?


Amazon is often considered as a place for deals and sure that you get very good deals. Today, I have searched for the most expensive books in Amazon.

The top book in the list is Struggle for Free Hindustan. One of the sellers is charging INR 999,999.00 for this book. On top of this, you are required to pay the delivery charges as well. Interestingly, there are other sellers who sell this at a cheaper price. Take a look


Another crazy pricing is for a Book called “A Christmas Carol” by Charles Dickens. This book also costs INR 999,999.00.


The costliest spiritual / religious book in amazon will cost you Rs. 7,03,395.63


This book may help you become the spiritual authority like the living gods and gurus and religious leaders of the day.

These pricings are not necessarily the real prices and could be some bugs in setting the price.

Public Provident fund


 All NRI’s must think about investing in the future. Most of us go back home alive and need money to survive.

  •  The Public Provident Fund Scheme is a statutory scheme of the Central
    Government of India.
  • The Scheme is for 15 years.
  • The rate of interest is 8% compounded annually.
  • The minimum deposit is 500/- and maximum is Rs. 70,000/- in a financial year.
  • One deposit with a minimum amount of Rs.500/- is mandatory in each financial year.
  • The deposit can be in lumpsum or in convenient installments, not more than 12 Installments in a year or two installments in a month subject to total deposit of Rs.70,000/-.
  • It is not necessary to make a deposit in every month of the year. The amount of deposit can be varied to suit the convenience of the account holders.
  • The account in which deposits are not made for any reasons is treated as discontinued account and such account can not be closed before maturity.
  • The discontinued account can be activated by payment of minimum deposit of Rs.500/- with default fee of Rs.50/- for each defaulted year.
  • Account can be opened by an individual or a minor through the guardian.
  • Joint account is not permissible.
  • Those who are contributing to GPF Fund or EDF account can also open a PPF account.
  • A Power of attorney holder can neither open or operate a PPF account.
  • The grand father/mother cannot open a PPF behalf of their minor
    grand son/daughter.
  • The deposits shall be in multiple of Rs.5/- subject to minimum amount of Rs.500/-.
  • The deposit in a minor account is clubbed with the deposit of the account of the Guardian for the limit of Rs.70,000/-.
  • No age is prescribed for opening a PPF account.
  • Interest is not contractual but rate is notified by Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India, at the end of each year.
  • The facility of first withdrawal in the 7th year of the account subject to a limit of 50% of the amount at credit preceding three year balance. Thereafter one Withdrawal in every year is permissible.
  • Pre-mature closure of a PPF Account is not permissible except in case of death.
  • Nominee/legal heir of PPF Account holder on death of the account holder can not continue the account, but account had to be closed.
  • The account holder has an option to extend the PPF account for any period in a block of 5 years on each time.
  • The account holder can retain the account after maturity for any period without making any further deposits. The balance in the account will continue to earn interest at normal rate as admissible on PPF account till the account is closed.
  • One withdrawal in each financial year is also admissible in such account.
  • The PPF scheme is operated through Post Office and Nationalized banks.
  • PPF account can be opened either in Post Office or in a Bank.
  • Account is transferable from one Post office to another and from Post office to Bank and from Bank to Post office.
  • Account is transferable from one Bank to another bank as well as within the bank to any branch.
  • Deposits in PPF qualify for rebate under section 80-C of Income Tax Act.
  • The interest on deposits is totally tax free.
  • Deposits are exempt from wealth tax.
  • The balance amount in PPF in PPF account is not subject to attachment under any order or decree of court in respect of any debt or liability.
  • Nomination facility available.
  • Best for long term investment.

National Savings Certificate

  • Minimum investment Rs. 500/- No maximum limit.
  • Rate of interest 8% compounded half yearly.
  • Rs. 1000/- grow to Rs. 1601/- in six years.
  • Two adults, Individuals, and minor through guardian can purchase.
  • Companies, Trusts, Societies and any other Institutions not eligible to purchase.
  • Non-resident Indian/HUF can not purchase.
  • No pre-mature encashment.
  • Annual interest earned is deemed to be reinvested and qualifies for tax rebate for first 5 years under section 80 C of Income Tax Act.
  • Maturity proceeds not drawn are eligible to Post Office Savings account interest for a maximum period of two years.
  • Facility of reinvestment on maturity.
  • Certificate can be pledged as security against a loan to banks/ Govt. Institutions.
  • Facility of encashment of certificates through banks.
  • Certificates are encashable any Post office in India before maturity by way of transfer to desired post office.
  • Certificates are transferable from one Post office to any Post office.
  • Certificates are transferable from one person to another person before maturity.
  • Duplicate Certificate can be issued for lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced certificate.
  • Nomination facility available.
  • Facility of purchase/payment to the holder of Power of attorney.
  • Tax Saving instrument – Rebate admissible under section 80 C of Income Tax Act.
  • Interest income is taxable but no TDS
  • Deposits are exempt from Wealth tax.


Post Office Monthly Income Scheme



  • Interest rate of 8% per annum payable monthly.
  • Maturity period is 6 years.
  • Minimum investment amount is Rs.1000/- or in multiple thereof.
  • Maximum amount is Rs. 3 lacs in single account and Rs. 6 lacs in a joint account.
  • Account can be opened by an individual, two/three adults jointly and a minor through a guardian.
  • A minor having attained 10 years of age can open an account in his/her own name directly.
  • Non-Resident Indian / HUF cannot open the Account.
    Minor has a separate limit of investment of Rs. 3 lacs and the same is not clubbed with the limit of guardian.
  • A separate account is opened for each deposit.
  • Any number of accounts can be opened subject to the maximum prescribed limit.
  • Facility of automatic credit of monthly interest to saving account if accounts are at the same post office.
  • Facility of premature closure of account after one year @ 3.50% discount.
  • No deduction of 3.5% if account is closed on completion of three years.
  • Facility of reinvestment on maturity of an account.
  • Interest not with-drawan does not carry any interest.
  • Maturity proceeds not drawn are eligible to saving account interest rate for a maximum period of two years.
  • Account is transferable from one post office to any Post office in India free of cost.
  • Nomination facility available.
  • Rebate under section 80 C not admissible.
  • Interest income is taxable, but no TDS
  • Only scheme in Post office where monthly interest is payable.
  • Most suitable scheme for senior citizens and for those who need regular monthly income.
  • Deposits are exempt from Wealth Tax


An NRI’s guide to buying homes in India


Having a home back home is not just a sentimental decision, it’s a practical one as well. Online websites like helps you find suitable properties in Kerala

The good thing about non-resident Indians (NRIs) buying property in India is that over the years, due to consistent demand, the sector has become organised. Both financial institutions and developers have systems to ensure that the process is smooth. There are rules and regulations to deal with almost every eventuality, including the fact that you cannot visit the property or the bank again and again.

For some NRIs, buying a property is a decision based on investment. They may not even see the property before selling it off a couple of years later. For others, buying a home is an emotional decision as they would like to retire and go back to their home town eventually.

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) governs such transactions and they fall under the purview of the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA).

Prices: In general, any demand drives up prices. Due to the downturn in the US, when returning NRIs bought property in India in 2008, unsubstantiated statistics put the increase in demand to about 15 to 20 per cent. Prices went up correspondingly.

Many developers focus on the NRI sector, creating entire townships with a view to sell them to this market. Property experts say that the prices are comparable to others in the area. “While you have to be careful of cheats and check credentials and documents, most builders who focus on NRIs don’t just ask for higher prices. There are many other differences too. The amenities are often what they are used to and, more importantly, the builder would facilitate investors selling the property later in case of under-construction buildings,” says Arjun Sharma, a real estate agent based in Mumbai.

Financing your house: If you want to self-finance your house, the foreign direct investment (FDI) policy permits up to 100 per cent FDI from foreign/NRI investors. You can fund the purchase by funds remitted to India from abroad through regular banking channels or through NRE (non-resident external), NRO (non-resident ordinary) or FCNR (foreign currency non-resident) accounts.

Loans: NRI loans differ from loans for resident Indian citizens — in terms of tenure, documents required and repayment.

Contrary to popular perception of NRI loan rates being higher, the difference in the rate for NRIs is usually not more than 0.25 per cent to 0.50 per cent. It is possible to get about 85 per cent of the cost funded by a bank. NRI loan tenures tend to be shorter — seven to 15 years — driving up instalment costs. Usually, up to 36 times of the gross monthly earnings of the applicant may be issued as loan.

For a loan, you need an account with the lending bank in India. Most banks earmark deposits held in addition to the mortgage on the property. The documentary requirements are similar to those applicable to local residents — personal documents (photographs, passport and visa copies etc), financial documents (appointment letter, salary slip, bank statement etc) and property documents (latest sale deed with previous chain link, allotment letter, payment plan and receipts for properties under construction). Most banks also prefer if you have a close blood relative in India, who can be a co-applicant to your loan.

As a practice, the first mortgage of the property is in the bank’s name. For properties under construction, additional security in the form of a third-party guarantee may be required.

Many housing finance companies have overseas offices to facilitate loans. ICICI bank, for instance, has representative offices in Dubai, New York, Bahrain, Singapore and the United Kingdom.

The law: An NRI can buy residential or commercial property in India but not agricultural land, plantation land or a farm house. He cannot even acquire them as a gift. He can, however, inherit them.

While there is no limit to the number of properties you can buy in India or in your country of residence, only one of them will be considered as self-occupied, hence not taxable.

Property agents advise giving a power of attorney to a person resident in India for completing formalities such as registration, possession and execution of agreement of sale. A PoA can be given to execute all contracts, deeds, mortgages, leases and sales. The document needs to be attested by an authorised official of the Indian embassy/consulate or a trade commissioner in the UAE.

Often developers request for a PoA in their favour and experts say that it is best to do that for specific purposes, such as only for a sale, lease or registration. Says Yusuf Khan, a Mumbai-based agent, “The developer or his authorised housing agent is the best person for PoAs, even if you have to give specific ones each time. Relatives or friends with blanket PoA are often too busy to look out for your best interest.”

If you sell your property, the proceeds can be repatriated provided the amount does not exceed the amount paid to acquire the property in foreign exchange received from overseas, the amount paid from a FCNR account, or the foreign currency equivalent of the amount paid from the funds held in an NRE account.


What to know before investing in property

  • Many chartered accountants in India stop filing returns once your NRI status is established. Even if you plan to take a loan some years down the line, continue filing returns. A clear tax record goes ensures smooth processing of loans. Additionally, if you are paying taxes for income earned in India (including from fixed deposit interest), you can claim tax rebate for the home loan.
  • It is a good idea to take a loan even if you don’t need it, as due diligence on the bank’s part requires visits to the property, checks to confirm that all papers are in order, and establishing legal status of a property.
  • Visit property fairs held in the UAE. But research corresponding rates in that area before buying.
  • Plan before you visit. Do get in touch with a few agents and shortlist properties you like.
  • Make a list of documents that may be needed, and create files with multiple copies. Your PAN (permanent account number) card, employment and income-related documents, proof of no dues on any other loans and a set of photos can make life easier.

Know the difference between NRE and NRO account


Many NRIs are often faced with the situation of maintaining a Rupee account in India. There are two options available with NRI interested in opening bank account in India – NRE or NRO account. Read this space to know the difference between these two accounts and know when to choose what account.

A Non-Resident Indian is often faced with the situation of maintaining a Rupee account in India. Primarily there are two reasons for opening such account: NRI wants to repatriate overseas earned money back to India and/or NRI wants to keep India based earnings in India.  NRI has the option of opening a Non Resident Rupee (NRE) account and/or a Non Resident Ordinary Rupee (NRO) account. An NRO account can also be opened by a Person of Indian Origin (PIO) and an Overseas citizen of India (OCI).

Similarities between NRE and NRO accounts:

Both accounts can be opened as Savings as well as current accounts and are Indian Rupee accounts. One needs to maintain an average monthly balance of Rs 75000 in both NRE and NRO accounts.

The Differences between NRE and NRO accounts:

1. Repatriation: NRE account is freely repatriable (Principal and interest earned) while the NRO account has restricted repatriability i.e permitted remittance allowed from NRO is up to USD 1 million net of applicable taxes in a financial year after giving undertaking along with a certificate from a chartered accountant.

2. Tax Treatment: NRE account is Tax free (no Income tax, wealth tax and gift tax) in India. On the other hand the interest earned in NRO account and credit balances are subject to respective income tax bracket and are also subject to applicable wealth and gift tax.

3. Deposit of Rupee funds generated in India: If an NRI/PIO/OCI  is earning income originating in India (such as salary, rent, dividends etc.) he/she is only allowed to deposit it in NRO account. Deposit of such earnings is not permitted in NRE account.

4. Joint Holding: NRE account can be iointly held with another NRI but not with resident Indian. On the other hand NRO account can be held with NRI as well as resident Indian (close relative) as defined under Section 6 of the Companies Act 1956.

Choose NRE accounts if you:

  • (Primary reason) want to park your overseas earnings remitted to India converted to Indian Rupees;
  • want to maintain savings in Rupee but keep them liquid;
  • want to make a joint account with another NRI;
  • want Rupee savings to be freely repatriable

Choose NRO account if you:

  • (Primary reason) want to park India based earnings in Rupees in India;
  • want account to deposit income earned  in India such as rent, dividends etc;
  • want to open account with resident Indian (close relative)

Article taken from MoneyControl website

Author Information : Nitin Vyakaranam, Founder & CEO ,

Home Loan for NRI’s


If you are looking to buy your property with a home loan then it is even better, as you could save on a lot of down payment from your personal account. Usually, you could get a loan of around 85 to 90% of the property value. Your personal documents required for your home loan pre-approval only. Disbursement will happen only when you buy the property.

Documents required by salaried (Non Resident Indian)

A) Loan application form duly filled and signed. Two photographs of both the applicant and the co-applicant with signature on front and back.

B) Copy of passport. (Along with latest visa stamp and date of entry stamp), Proof of residence in India. (Electricity / Telephone bill / Ration card / Society maintenance bill / LIC Policy / Mobile bill / Utility bill like Gas Supply bill), Proof of residence in Abroad (Electricity / Telephone Bill / Mobile Bill / Utility Bill e.g. Gas Supply bill / Driving License), Copy of Identity card / Social Security card / Work permit (Ikama) Copy of credit card. Last six months bank statements of all the NRE / NRO account in India.

C) Last six months bank statements of bank account held abroad where salary is credited Copy of Contract / Employment Certificate Copy of Annual Salary Certificate specifying the mode of payment (If payment is fully or partly received in cash) Salary Slips for the immediately past 06 months.

D) Copies of Sanction Letter of Loans availed in India and abroad Self Declaration of Residential Status Initial Processing fees cheque of Rs 5612/-, this is charged by the Bank, we can do away with this for the time being and once you want to have the application approved you please send this to us.

E) Please note that all the above documents need to be certified by the Indian Embassy abroad. Documents relating to income / salary needs to be attested as true by your employer.

F) All documents in foreign language need to be translated in English.

New Baby Birth Certicate and Residence procedures in Kuwait


Things you should ensure prior to the birth of the baby

In order to obtain your baby’s Kuwait birth certificate and to have your baby’s passport stamped with a residence visa, you should produce your original marriage certificate attested by the corresponding ministry in your country or the country where the marriage has taken place. Marriage Affidavit issued by your embassy in Kuwait is also acceptable.

This needs to be attested at the embassy of your country in Kuwait as well. Then you will need to translate this certificate into Arabic and it requires to be be certified by and finally by Ministry of Justice Kuwait. Then the documents to be submitted to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kuwait for further certification

As this take time, you will need to get this ready even before the delivery of the baby in Kuwait

Getting the Birth certificate of the Infant born in Kuwait(from the ministry of health registry office)

The Birth Certificate for the baby born in Kuwait should be applied within 10 working days of birth

  • Take the pink form from the hospital. If it is a holiday, then collect it on the very next working day. The pink form is not the birth certificate, but merely the the information about your child
  • Submit the pink form at the Registrar of Births and Death as per your locality. If you are not sure about the office to go, ask the hospital to tell you the name and location of the registry office you need to visit.
  • The following documents are needed when you submit the application for the birth certificate:
    • The pink form given to you by the hospital
    • both parents’ passports
    • photocopies of the visa pages and photo pages of both parents’ passports
    • both parents’ civil IDs
    • photocopies of both sides of both parents civil IDs
    • an attested and certified Arabic copy of your marriage certificate/affidavit
    • Submit written note of child’s first name in Arabic.
  • They will give you a date to collect the certificates. Collect the certificates on the date mentioned
  • The birth certificate has to be attested on the last inside page at Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA), which will cost you KD 5
  • The MoFA in Shuwaikh is located beside KUNA and operates between 7 am – 12 pm and the MoFA in Liberation Tower operates between 4 pm and 6 pm

Getting the passport in Kuwait

The next step is to get the passport for your child. You will have to the procedures at the respective embassies. Since they are not generic procedures for all, it will be addressed separately.

Obtaining the residence for your child in Kuwait

The residency of your child should be processed within two months of the birth.

To obtain the residence and civil ID for your child, you will need to follow the normal procedure of making the family visa in Kuwait 

List of Universities in Kuwait


Kuwait offers a lot of options for higher education. There are many universities in Kuwait mostly with western base. The universities in Kuwait offers various streams of education such as the arts and sciences, business and engineering.

Kuwait University

Kuwait University is the oldest higher education university in Kuwait. Established in 1966, Kuwait University is the most known university in Kuwait. There are about 14 affiliated colleges to this university with wide variety of streams of education offers graduate and under-graduate courses to students. Programs offered include studies within the colleges of medicine, law, engineering, education, Islamic studies, the sciences, pharmacy, the arts, business, dentistry and allied health sciences.

Contact Information

Kuwait University
P.O. Box 5969
Safat — 13060, Kuwait
Ph: 965-2498-5205

Gulf University for Science and Technology (GUST)

Gulf University for Science and Technology was established in 2002 as a private university with the intentions to make it as a supplement to Kuwait University. As the website say, it started of with the assistance/participation of 47 Kuwait University faculty members. A strategic partnership was established with the University of Missouri at St. Louis (UMSL). The university primarily offers two streams of education: Arts and Science as well as business administration

Contact Information

Gulf University for Science and Technology
P.O. Box 7207
Hawally 32093, Kuwait
Ph: 965-2530-7000

American University of Kuwait

AUK is a recent entrant into the Kuwait higher education system is modeled around the American educational mode. They offer education in three primary divisions:

1. business and economics
2. humanities and the arts, and
3. the sciences and engineering

Contact Information

American University of Kuwait
P.O. Box 3323
Safat 13034, Kuwait
Ph: 965-2224-8399

Arab Open University

Arab Open University is a private university that was founded in Kuwait in 2002. The university has several campus locations across Middle East, which include Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, and Oman. The offer three streams of study: language studies, information technology, and computing and business.

Contact Information

Arab Open University
Al-Khaitan – Block 2
Sharhabeel St. 395
Hawalli P.O Box 32004 Al-Jabria, Kuwait
Ph: 965-2476-7291

If I have missed any of the colleges or universities, do let me know thru comments so that I will update this post.

Museums in Kuwait


Kuwait has various Museums across the country. Some of them are Islamic Museums and others are history Museums related to the country.

Dar al Islamiya

The Dar Al-Athar Al-Islamiyyah, (House of Islamic Antiquities), is located inside the Kuwait National Museum complex. This is one of the most comprehensive collections of Islamic art in the world – covering all geographic regions and historic periods from the eighth to the eighteenth century. This extraordinary collection was formed by Sheikh Nasser Al-Sabah and his wife, Sheikha Hussa Al-Sabah who started collecting Islamic art in order to bring objects back ‘home’ – near to where they had originally been made. When the Dar Al-Athar Al-Islmaiyyah first exhibited, the collection was comprised of 1,200 objects – but now numbers over 20,000. It also contains a specialised library of several thousand books in different languages on Islamic history and heritage. The collection is a tribute to the patient endeavours of Sheikh Nasser and Sheikha Hussa who have created one of the most spectacular collections of Islamic art in existence. The British Museum has previously staged a major exhibition of Islamic art with a very significant number of works from the Dar Al-Athar Al-Islamiyyah collection.

Educational Science Museum

Located downtown Kuwait City near the Liberation Tower, the Educational Science Museum was Kuwait’s first museum, and it contains displays about the history of the petroleum industry in Kuwait, natural history, electronics, space and aviation, and zoology subjects, as well as a planetarium. It also boasts an 18 meter whale skeleton. Tel – 2421268/2466973. Open from 9am to 12am and 4:30-7:30 Saturday to Wednesday.

Kuwait House of National Memorial Museum

There is an entry fee of KD1. Once you go inside you get a personal guide. The museum is divided into various sections, the first section talks about Kuwait’s origins and how they discovered oil and how Kuwait gained its independence. Then they show you images from the last meeting on August 1st 1990 in Jeddah with Saddam Hussain who says that everything is cool and they won’t invade Kuwait, then you move to the next section. The second section is where they talk about the invasion of Kuwait, all done using models and special effects. They have a huge model of Kuwait City and the streets are littered with model tanks, other vehicles and soldiers. This section is a long dark corridor with displays on both sides of the room all in the dark. Then as the story is being narrated through speakers in the room, the different sets light up to show the story. These sets with the models have strategically located lights and smoke machines, very cool stuff plus there were a lot of sound effects of machine gun fire, people shouting and things exploding. They open in the morning and in the evenings. With the KD1 entrance you get a guided tour, 2 movies you watch about the war, and souvenirs which involve posters, a cool brochure with nice pictures, and another brochure on the museum. To find out where exactly they are located and when they are open you can call 4845335 or 4846336. It is located in Shuwaikh near the Arab Fund Building and the Kuwait Red Crescent Society.

Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) Display

The Kuwait Oil Company has an ultra-modern audio-visual museum of Kuwait’s oil industry, past and present. This is a museum devoted to the history of oil, from geological formation through exploration, drilling, and recovery. It was destroyed in the Iraqi invasion in 1990, but has been reconstructed with additional exhibits. These include notably how the Iraqi occupation forces set fire to most of Kuwait’s oil wells, and the subsequent well-capping and fire-fighting operations. In Ahmadi area, it is open by appointment, tel 398 2393 / 398 9111 / 398 1678. KOC can also arrange for groups to tour the oil fields themselves.

Al-Hashemi Maritime Museum

Located at the SAS Hotel, the Al-Hashemi Maritime Museum is housed in the Al Hashemi II, which is the world’s largest wooden Arabic dhow (It’s in the Guinness Book of World Records!). The museum showcases traditional shipbuilding and seafaring in Kuwait and features large models of different traditional dhows, sea tools and accessories highlighting Kuwait’s long maritime and trading traditions. The large dhow also has a Grand Ball Room and several other reception areas that are used for weddings, conferences, dinners, etc. The museum is free.

The National Museum

The National Museum (Tel : 2451195/4) is located on the Gulf Road just south of the Parliament / National Assembly downtown. It was opened in December 1957. Looted and burned by the former Iraqi regime during the invasion, the museum is now restored and has been re-opened to the public – with many, but not all, artifacts having been returned from Iraq. In 1997, Muhallab II, the replacement for (and replica of) the magnificent trading dhow from the 1930s that graced the front yard of the museum before it was burned by the former Iraqi regime, was constructed on site and is now open to visitors.

Qurain Martyr’s House

This destroyed private house (tel 543 0343) was the site of the bloody battle between the Messilah Resistance Group and the Iraqi occupiers. A solemn monument to the martyrs of Kuwait (In Qurain area, on road 208 between Fahaheel and Magreb Expressways – there should be signs).

The Taraq Rajab Museum

(Tel : 5317358) is a private museum located in Jabriya. The museum specializes in Islamic Arts and Crafts and is open daily from 9.00am – 12.00, 4.00pm – 8.00pm, closed Friday afternoons. Open to the public since 1980, the museum houses a host of Islamic art and artefacts, ranging from pottery and glass work, to musical instruments and jewellery. Entrance to the museum is free. It is located in Jabriya (Area 12, Street 5 – down the street from the Iranian School and near the New English School and the Hadi Clinic).

Modern Art Museum (Sharqeya School)

This is a lovely new museum of modern painting and sculpture by Kuwaiti and Arab artists. Originally opened as a boys’ school in 1935, then a girls’ school in 1938, the National Council for Culture Arts and Letters reopened it as a museum in 2003. It is located directly across the Gulf Road from Souq Sharq near a large dhow. It is free and open Saturday to Wednesday 0900-1300 and 1700-2100. Very informed and friendly tour guides who speak English are available. 2468348 / 2468354 / 2468401 ex 105 or 115.